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RECOGNIZING THE VICTORY AND COLLAPSE SINGHASARI KINGDOM AT SINGHASARI TEMPLE

SINGHASARI TEMPLE - When the morning sun starts to spread its light that warmly touches the skin, I walk along the paved streets towards Singhasari Temple. The sky was bright with blue clusters covered in thin clouds stretching along the eyes.

I stopped the speed of the motorcycle on the edge of the sidewalk. Then, from the edge of the fence I stared at the splendor of Singosari Temple which stood amidst a stretch of green grass. Looks magnificent and is clean.

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Singhasari Temple

When stepping into the courtyard of the temple, picture after picture crossed my mind. The story of the life journey of the figure of Maharaja Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari who was enshrined in Singosari Temple.

Singosari Temple

Singosari Temple stands majestically on the edge of the road. This temple is a place for conquering the body of King Kertanegara and as a place of respect for this last king of Singosari.

Singosari Temple is an icon of Singosari sub-district and is one of the kingdoms of Singhasari that is easily accessible and maintained and is kept clean. Almost every day many tourists visit especially on holidays.

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Singhasari Temple, Candirenggo, Singosari, Malang, East Java

Its presence on the edge of the highway that is widely passed makes many motorists stop for a moment to enjoy its splendor. Some just look at it from outside the fence and many are interested in enjoying it up close.

But when entering the beautiful temple area, the memories of Raja Kertanegara will fill our minds. As a generation born far from the kingdom, many did not yet know about this last king of Singhasari.

Kertanegara and The collapse of the kingdom of Singhasari

Kertanegara is the crown prince of Raja Wisnuwardhana, king of Agung Tumapel who controls Janggala and Panjalu, with Empress Waning Hyun. In 1254, Kertanegara was crowned king of Daha before finally replacing his father's power.

Sri Kertanegara was the first Singhasari king to let go of his views outside Java. He left the traditional politics which revolved around Janggala - Panjalu. He wanted to have a kingdom that was wider and bigger than the kingdom of Janggala - the legacy of King Airlangga.

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Kertanegara breaks down traditional politics and adheres to new ideas which are challenged by adherents of the old ideologies that have taken root before. So that he did not hesitate to get rid of the dignitaries who dealt with and replaced them with other figures who agreed.

One of the officials who was deposed from his position was Mahamentri Mpu Raganatha and was replaced by Mahisa Anengah Panji Angragani.

During his reign there was also an armed rebellion mentioned in Kidung Panjji Wijayakrama Pupuh I, namely the rebellion of Kelana Bhayangkara and in Negarakretagama pupuh XLI / 4 namely the Cayaraja rebellion.

Although the rebellions were successfully crushed, the implementation of the political idea of expanding the territory was hampered. Five years later the Sang Kertanegara sent its troops to Suwarnabhumi in 1275 called Pamalayu.

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The expedition to Malay succeeded well where the Singhasari army managed to subdue the king of Malayu, Tribhuwanaraja Mauliwarmadewa in Dharmasraya, which was based in Jambi and controlled the Straits of Malacca. This event was recorded in the Amoghapasa charter or charter of the Padang Arca in 1286.

In 1289, Raja Kertanegara received Meng Khi, the Chinese Emperor's envoy, Kublai Khan. The arrival of Meng Khi asked Shingasari to acknowledge the power of Typical Emperor Gengis and submit tribute as a sign of submission.

However, Kertanegara does not want to submit or surrender. In fact, Meng Khi was carved on his forehead and told to go home.

However, the success of expanding the area to Malayu must be paid dearly. The emptiness of the army in the capital was utilized by Jayakatwang to rebel and succeed in killing Kertanegara.
Then ended the journey of the history of the Singhasari kingdom under the rule of Raja Kertanegara.

History of Singosari Temple

Singosari temple was found in the early 18th century, around 1800 to 1850 in the village of Candirenggo, Singosari District, Malang Regency, East Java. Singosari temple is Hindu-Buddhist because at that time the developing religion was Hinduism and Buddhism.

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This temple in Candirenggo Village was thought to have been built during the Majapahit Kingdom which was made to glorify Raja Kertanegara, the last King of Singosari kingdom who died in 1293. Because, after the Singosari kingdom collapsed, Raden Wijaya founded the Majapahit kingdom.

And, at this time the Singosari Temple was built as a place of gathering and glorifying Raja Kertanegara. This is confirmed by the writing on the Nagarakretagama book and the Gajah Mada Inscription found on the temple grounds.

An archaeologist from Europe, gave the name of this temple with the name Cella temple which means tower. However, the surrounding community did not agree with the name of the temple. so until now the name used is Singosari Temple.

Characteristics and Aristotle of Singosari Temple

Viewed from the side of its architecture, Singasari Temple which is located in the middle of this courtyard has a body that stands on a batur of about 1.5 m high, without decoration or relief at the foot of the temple. The stairs going up to the hallway at the foot of the temple are not flanked by the cheeks of the stairs with makara decorations like those found in other temples.

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The entrance to the room in the center of the body of the temple faces south, located on the front side of the viewer chamber (a small chamber that protrudes forward). This entrance looks simple without a frame decorated with carvings.

Above the doorway there is a sculpture of Kala's head which is also very simple carved. The existence of several very simple carvings and reliefs raises the suspicion that the construction of Singasari Temple has not been fully resolved.

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The threshold of the niche is also frameless and Kala headdress. Similar niches are also found on the other three sides of the Singasari Temple. The size of the niche is larger, equipped with a viewer room and above the threshold there is a simple Kala headdress. In the middle of the main room there is a broken yoni on the top. There are also no carvings on Yoni's feet.

At a glance, the building of Singasari Temple looks like a two-story building, because the lower part of the roof of the temple is square, resembling a small room with niches on each side. It seems that the niches originally contained statues, but now they are empty.

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Above each threshold of the 'door' of the niche there is a Kala headdress with sculptures that are more complicated than those above the entrance threshold and niches in the temple's body. The roof tops themselves are meru-shaped, the more they shrink. Some of the roof tops appear to have collapsed.

Singasari Temple was once restored by the Dutch government in the 1930s, visible from the carved notes at the foot of the temple. However, the results of the renovation appear to have not been comprehensive, because around the temple grounds there are still piles of stones that have not been returned to their original place.

On the Singasari Temple yard there are also statues which are mostly damaged or unfinished, including Syiwa statues in various positions and sizes, Durga, and Lembu Nandini. (purbakala.net)

Location of Singosari Temple

Singosari Temple is on Jl. Kertanegara No. 148 Candirenggo Village, Singosari District, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia.

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Entrance ticket to Singosari Temple

To enter Singosari Temple, visitors are required to fill in the guest book first and make voluntary contributions, not subject to official rates.

Historical Attractions Near Singosari Temple

Not only Singosari Temple, Malang Regency also has several other historical sites which are located not far from the kings of Raja Kertanegara. Such as the following.
  1. Watugede Bath or Baboji Park
  2. Dwarapala Singosari statue
  3. Sumberawan Temple
  4. Watu Lumpang site
  5. Sumber Botorubuh
  6. Sumber Nagan
Reference : Prof. Dr. Slamet Mulyana, Nagarakretagama dan Tafsir Sejarahnya

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